Our Departments

Oral and dental health is of great importance in every period of human life. Oral and dental health problems and aesthetic problems caused by teeth can seriously negatively affect people’s lives. Oral and dental health problems can also affect general health. For this reason, it is necessary to rely on fully equipped health institutions and professional dentists with experience in oral and dental health.

Preventive Dentistry Practices

Preventive dentistry applications are applications aimed at protecting the existing oral and dental health in general. In addition to not providing proper hygienic care for many years, not taking the necessary preventive measures also plays an important role in the deterioration of oral and dental health. For this reason, today, with preventive dentistry practices, necessary precautions are taken while oral and dental health has not yet deteriorated and problems such as dental caries that may be seen in the future are prevented. Preventive dentistry is especially important in childhood and adolescence. Generally, preventive dentistry applications in these age groups can be listed as topical fluoride applications and fissure sealants applied especially to molars.


Sometimes the pulp tissue, which is the deepest tissue of the teeth and contains nerves and vascular packets, is damaged due to reasons such as caries affecting deep dental tissues and sometimes traumas. Damage to this tissue can cause pulp diseases that cause severe pain or teeth may lose their vitality. If the teeth cannot maintain their vitality for any reason, the nerve tissues in the center of the tooth, that is, the pulp must be cleaned. This treatment is called endodontic treatment, i.e. root canal treatment. Dentists specializing in endodontics are called endodontists. As a result of neglect of endodontic treatments, lesions may occur in the tooth roots and even tooth loss may occur. Therefore, endodontic treatments are of serious importance in oral and dental health.


When it comes to oral health, gums are as important as teeth. Although the deterioration of gum health sometimes consists of simple gum bleeding, sometimes it can cause serious problems that can lead to tooth loss. The branch of dentistry that includes the diagnosis and treatment of gum diseases is called periodontology, and dentists specializing in this field are called periodontologists. Periodontological treatments are applied for tartar cleaning, cleaning and surgical curettage of tooth-root surfaces, and removal of gingival recession. In addition to these, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as diseases of the gum tissues around the implant, gingival bleeding, tooth sensitivity, and bad breath are performed in the periodontology department.


Child treatments have a special place in dentistry. Dental caries seen at an early age both damage oral development and may affect the general health and development of the child with a negative effect on the child’s nutrition. In addition, the fear of dentists, which can develop in early childhood, can make children’s later life difficult. All applications such as the follow-up of oral and dental development needed in childhood, the treatment of milk tooth decay, as well as the placeholders that should be applied due to early tooth loss, are all within the field of interest of pedodontics. Pedodontics includes the diagnosis and treatment of patients between the ages of 0-15 as well as preventive applications. Pedodontic applications cover a long period including the toothless period, the period when deciduous teeth begin to erupt, the mixed dentition period when permanent teeth begin to erupt and the period when permanent teeth are completed. It is of great importance to consult specialist pedodontists when necessary to ensure that children’s psychology is not adversely affected and that they receive dental treatment under healthy conditions.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a branch of surgical science that deals with all surgical interventions involving teeth and oral tissues as well as jaw bones and joints. All surgical procedures related to the mouth, such as impacted tooth operations, treatment of cysts and lesions in the jaw bones, implant treatments, graft, i.e. bone powder applications to eliminate the dimensional loss of jaw bones, treatment of jaw fractures, apical resection and similar surgical procedures are performed under local anesthesia by specialist oral and maxillofacial surgeons.


In the past, only prosthesis methods were applied to eliminate tooth deficiencies. However, the prostheses made to eliminate tooth deficiencies brought deficiencies such as damage to the healthy teeth by reducing them and not providing the necessary comfort in toothless mouths. With the emergence of implantology treatments, it has become possible to eliminate tooth deficiencies and complete edentulism without these problems.

Implant treatments consist of two stages: the surgical stage where the implants are placed in the jawbone and the prosthetic stage where the prosthetic teeth with superstructures are applied. Implant applications are applied in order to realize fixed prosthesis applications or to make removable prostheses more stable in the mouth. With the developing technology, implant treatment can be applied in almost every case.

Aesthetic Dentistry

When it comes to dental treatments, situations such as the treatment of decayed teeth and the compensation of missing teeth usually come to mind, but today, smile aesthetics related to teeth and gums are also of great importance. Causes such as tooth decay, excessive discoloration, crowding, defects on the tooth surface and form, and the position of the gums relative to the teeth negatively affect dental aesthetics. Situations, where smile aesthetics are not good enough, cause negative effects on people both socially and psychologically.

Conditions that disrupt smile aesthetics can be corrected with modern aesthetic dentistry applications. Applications such as whitening treatments, composite or porcelain lamina applications, porcelain veneer applications, and gum arrangements are among aesthetic dentistry applications.



The solution to problems such as tooth deficiencies, decayed teeth with material loss that cannot be repaired by filling methods, tooth fractures, and aesthetic problems due to the structure of the tooth is possible with dental prostheses.

Prosthesis treatments have a very wide range of applications. The first of these is tooth deficiencies. There are two types of applications in the elimination of tooth deficiencies with prosthesis methods. The first of these is removable prostheses applied to mouths with toothless or very few teeth, and the other is veneer treatments in cases where the loss of material in the tooth is high and bridge applications in case of a small number of tooth deficiencies, ie fixed prostheses. Veneers and bridges can be made with many different alternative methods and materials.

In addition to tooth deficiencies, prosthesis applications are also used in cases where the teeth have aesthetic deficiencies that cannot be eliminated by other methods. Lamina porcelains are examples of aesthetic prosthetic applications applied in such cases. The structures on the implant are also created with various prosthesis methods and these are called implant prostheses.


Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that deals with tooth crowding, disorders in tooth closure, and disorders in the relationship between the upper and lower jaws, and dentists who specialize in this field are called orthodontists. Teeth with crooked and irregular appearance are one of the most disturbing situations in people’s smiles. In addition, other factors such as gapped teeth and incompatibility in the position of the bones of the jaws with each other badly affect both the appearance of the teeth and facial aesthetics. On the other hand, such disorders can also impair chewing function. The healthiest solution to all these dental appearance and jaw structure problems is possible with orthodontic treatment, also known as wire treatment.

People’s lifestyle and environmental changes, as well as dietary habits have gradually increased the prevalence of allergic and immunologic diseases. We diagnose and treat allergy-based diseases of upper and lower respiratory tracts as well as dermal and drug allergies for adult patients at the Allergy and Immunology Department.
Certain diseases, such as respiratory tract disorders including but not limited to asthma and allergic rhinitis; atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and angioedema, drug-induced allergic reactions, as well as food and drug allergies are all diagnosed and treated by our department. Detailed medical histories are obtained from patients who present with any of the aforementioned complaints and blood work or skin prick tests are performed. Medical treatment or immunotherapy (vaccine treatment for allergens) may be recommended depending on the results.
The Allergy and Immunology Department is considered esteemed in part thanks to excellent physical conditions including substantial bed capacity. Immunotherapy patients are vaccinated in special procedure rooms and remain under observation for periods of time deemed appropriate. Department doctors closely monitor all updates in this field and inform our patients fully about all resulting treatment methods in order to provide the best current information about allergens and the available solutions.
We make a difference with drug desensitization (measuring the response and tolerance level of the immune system to drugs) that we use for allergic and immunologic diseases along with the biological agents that represent innovative treatments for asthma and hives.
Our department uses skin prick tests to identify allergies and renders healthcare services that include skin tests before local or general anesthesia.
We provide a complete array of diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical and rehabilitation services for comprehensive treatment and management of neurological disorders.
Our neurologists and neurosurgeons specialize in everything from memory disorders to brain surgery. These doctors have studied in top Turkey and international institutions, in countries such as United States, England, Canada, and Australia. In addition, TRG  has a large staff of rehabilitation doctors and therapists to help patients regain functionality during recovery.
The Neuroscience Department has two main branches:
Neurology (including Stroke)
The neurology and memory clinic deal with investigation and medicine-based treatment of neurological conditions.
Neurosurgery deals with surgical treatments of neurological and spine conditions.
The doctors and staff of these departments are usually the first line investigators of neurological symptoms. Based upon the results of their investigations, you may be referred to a neurosurgeon if the disease is determined to be treatable through surgical methods.
Memory Clinic – Our Memory Clinic specializes in working with those impaired by dementia and memory disorders as well as Alzheimer’s.
Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Clinic – Our Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Clinic offers a full range of diagnostic services and medical treatments for patients with Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. 
Our Neurology specialists also focus on the following diseases:
  • Headaches and migraines 
  • Epilepsy
  • Movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson’s disease)
TRG offers a team of neurosurgeons to provide advice and treatment for patients with neurological disorders who need surgical treatments. Common conditions treated by these surgeons include cerebral hemorrhage, brain tumors, cerebral aneurysm, and spine disorders. These tend to be serious conditions and our specialists will consider which approach offers the best balance of safety and benefits.
A rehabilitation team of physical and occupational therapists will guide you through the recovery process and advise you on illness management. The Neuroscience Center coordinates with the hospital’s Rehabilitation Center to plan a targeted rehabilitation program that helps regain function and control of your movement. In addition, dieticians will work with you to help control your risk of stroke.
The nurses at the center provide educational sessions for stroke and epilepsy patients and their families. Our nurses help you to understand your health situation and how you can reduce the risk of further problems.
TRG’s Neuroscience Centers provides technologies for investigation of neurological disorders such as:
  • EEG (electroencephalography)
  • EMG (electromyography)
  • Advanced EEG Monitoring for Epilepsy
  • MRI & MRA
  • Spiral CT / 3D CT
The Department of Pediatric Surgery at the TRG provides solutions for any and all surgical problems that might develop in children between the age of 0-14 and successfully performs all open and endoscopic procedures in the indicated cases. Top pediatric surgeons have been working in the department  and successful operations have been carried out prolifically due to the knowledge and skills of our surgical team combined with the latest technological equipment.
Notable features of our department include high bed capacity and an experienced pediatric surgery team that renders healthcare services around the clock. Pediatricians at our hospitals offer their services in a comfortable, safe and convenient environment where our pediatric surgery team can be reached at any time. Our ability to follow a multi-disciplinary approach based on well thought out strategy formed from regular meetings held by the pediatric urology and pediatric oncology clinics as well as close collaboration with universities and the ability to recognize the personal needs of our patients, as well as the availability of all laparoscopic techniques, constitutes an overall excellent standard of professionalism.
Our experienced pediatric nurses are always attending our child patients who require extra care and attention during the postoperative period. The top-quality care at our Neonatal Intensive Care Units allows our infants to cope with the postoperative care period in a particularly trouble-free and comfortable manner. The constant accessibility of a top pediatric psychologist, whenever needed, is one of the privileges that come with the availability of a large integrated team. Moreover, we can perform laparoscopic surgery for children of all ages thanks to the technological devices that enable us to perform bronchoscopy and endoscopic procedures.
Endocrinology is a branch of science that deals with the system formed by the internal glands. The internal glands are the name given to the organs that make hormone synthesis and secretion. Hormones secreted by the glands control various activities in the body. Hormone types carry out the usual process such as metabolism, growth, development, reproduction; they help provide the energy and nutrients the body needs.
What is pediatric endocrinology?
The answer to the question of what child Endocrinology looks at can be given as “examines the endocrinological problems of newborns, infants, children and young adolescents from the neonatal period to the age of 18.” A child’s healthy growth and development is only related to the timely and balanced release of several hormones. Numerous diseases related to structural or functional problems of all these glands, which make up the endocrine system and control countless important events in our body, are of interest to the science of Pediatric Endocrinology. “What is child endocrine?”it is a field of science that deals with hormonal disorders at every stage of childhood and teenage years.”
Growth and developmental delays early and delayed puberty, obesity, thyroid, diabetes, adrenal gland disorders, hypoglycemia, menstrual irregularities, vitamin D diseases, bone diseases, endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome is diagnosed in children with a variety of test and treatment is made according to the results of these tests. Diagnosis and evaluation of endocrine diseases is done with blood test screening. Hormone testing may be required if necessary. All these examinations are requested and applied by specialist pediatric endocrinology doctors in the field.
Pediatric endocrinology is an area that can also solve the problem of short stature. In addition to genetic or nutrient deficiency, short stature can also have causes such as hypothyroidism, Growth Hormone Deficiency, and Cushing’s Syndrome. In addition, pediatric endocrinology is a scientific field that works effectively in lengthening. Children suspected of short stature should be taken to a specialist in pediatric endocrinology. 
Short stature treatment
Short stature treatment also falls within the field of Pediatric Endocrinology. Height elongation is one of the steps of healthy growth. The cause of short stature can be genetic, as well as nutrient deficiency, chronic diseases, thyroid, cushing’s syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, skeletal dysplasia. After examination, bone age determination, various laboratory tests, the causes of short stature are determined and treatment is applied.
Growth hormone therapy
Growth hormone is a hormone that directly affects growth growth. Some children may have problems affecting growth. An increase in height may not be achieved due to a lack of thyroid hormones. It can be called a growth hormone test. Although growth hormone controls the growth of bones, novices, organs, growth hormone is produced in the brain and secreted into the blood. If the pituitary gland does not produce sufficient levels of growth hormone, growth remains slow. Warning tests, IGF-1 tests are applied in relation to this. However, additional examinations may be requested. According to the condition of the child and the results of the examinations, the treatment plan is formed.
Developmental disorders
Children can sometimes have developmental disorders. Developmental disorders are determined by measuring the physical characteristics of the child, such as height, weight, and social and cognitive skills. Poor nutrition, sleep disorders can affect development; irregular secretion of growth hormones can also cause developmental disorders. In developmental disorders, sometimes psychological factors can also be a problem. Apathy also causes developmental disorders in children.
Early life
Early puberty is one of the endocrine problems that has increased significantly all over the world in recent years and affects girls more than boys. Familial predisposition or other causes may play a role in early puberty. In early adolescence, families can carry the anxiety of short stature. Entering puberty at an early age can also affect the mental state of children. Although it is said that there are foods and medications that cause early puberty, there is no medical equivalent. The reasons for the child’s early adolescence should be investigated. Breast development and pubescence of the genitals or armpits before the age of 8 in girls, an increase in testicular volume before the age of 9 in boys, and hair growth of the genitals or armpits are indicated as “early adolescence”. There is also the concept of early puberty. This, in turn, is expressed as menstruation in girls before the age of 10; in boys, puberty symptoms begin at the age of 9, while menstruation is defined as early menstruation before the age of 10. It would be appropriate for families to consult Endocrine specialists instead of using herbal solutions and alternative methods to early puberty.
Obesity, which is considered a disease of our time, is also observed in children. Eating habits, almost the end stage of street Games brings with it inactivity, while obesity leads to. According to research, the incidence of obesity in children is between 15-25 percent.
How to tell if a child is obese?
As in adult individuals, obesity in children is determined by The Body Mass Index and the percentile curve. According to this, the child endokinology specialist begins to apply the correct method of treatment.
 The Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition Unit diagnoses and treats children with inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal system including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, congenital and acquired liver disease, and hyperlipidemia (excessive levels of lipids in the blood). The unit aims for early diagnosis and treatment, including supplementary oral or intravenous dietary treatments, to ensure quality of life and normal growth for these children.

The unit comprises a general pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition clinic and puts emphasis on specialized clinics such as inflammatory bowel disease clinic (one of the largest in Israel), a liver clinic, and a lipids clinic. The general clinics serve as a center for diagnosis and treatment of additional diseases of the digestive system such as celiac disease, peptic ulcer and gastrointestinalbleeding, allergies and food intolerance, pancreatic diseases, stomach pain and constipation.
The diagnostics and dietary treatments include, among others, treatment of children with growth disorders, malnutrition, short bowel syndrome,eating disorders, food allergies and chronic diarrhea, as well as dietary treatments for children with special needs.

Care from Birth Through Adulthood
TRG’s pediatric medical geneticists diagnose and treat rare genetic disorders, whether they are diagnosed before birth or later in life. These conditions often result from a difference in genetic makeup and can affect growth, development, and health. Our team provides comprehensive services to diagnose, treat, and manage all forms of hereditary disorders and birth defects affecting fetuses, newborns, children, adolescents, and adults. We work with families to identify these conditions as early as possible and provide management and treatment to relieve symptoms. 
Conditions We Treat
  • Down Syndrome
  • Glycogen Storage Diseases
  • Lysosomal Storage Disorders
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Pediatric Neuromuscular Disease
  • Pompe Disease
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Genetic Testing and Counseling Before and After Birth
Identifying Genetic Disorders
Identifying genetic disorders at the earliest possible stage is a fundamental part of what we do. Depending on your family history, screening can take place in adults before becoming pregnant, during pregnancy, and in children after birth. Screening is routinely performed on newborns as part of the childbirth process. This allows us to begin treatment as early as possible for any genetic diseases that are detected. Genetic testing is also available for children and adults with suspected genetic conditions.
Genetic Counseling for Families
Our genetic counselors communicate with families to help them achieve a comprehensive understanding of what the test results mean. We also address the social and ethical implications of genetic testing in children.
A Team Approach to Care
A genetic disorder can affect many aspects of a person’s growth, development, and health. Our team approach to care includes medical and surgical experts from many different areas.
Team of Specialists
Depending on your or your child’s needs, you may receive care from our pediatric geneticists, pediatric neurologists, cardiologists, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, surgeons, and other specialists who understand the complexities of genetic diseases and can provide care at the right time.
Skilled Nurses and Therapists
Our team also includes highly skilled nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, dietitians, psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, speech therapists, social workers, and child life specialists.
Partnership with Hometown Practitioners
Because genetic diseases require extensive follow-up, we build a strong relationship with doctors in your hometown to ensure that you or your child receive the best care close to home.

Pediatric cardiologists are pediatricians who specialize in cardiology. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons, a specialty of general surgery.

Although the cardiovascular system is inextricably linked to blood, cardiology is relatively unconcerned with hematology and its diseases. Some obvious exceptions that affect the function of the heart would be blood tests (electrolyte disturbances, troponins), decreased oxygen carrying capacity (anemia, hypovolemic shock), and coagulopathies.

The Division of Pediatric Nephrology specializes in the diagnosis and management of children with a variety of acute and chronic kidney-related disorders. The division evaluates and treats hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and kidney failure. It also provides comprehensive care for pediatric patients with end-stage kidney disease, including care to patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and follow-up care after kidney transplantation.
The division is committed to performing research in an effort to improve treatment and outcomes in pediatric patients with advanced kidney disease. Team members have diverse research interests and are involved in a number of studies that evaluate various aspects of care provided to children with kidney disease.
The division also strives to enhance the well-being of patients and their families through many advocacy projects, including a transplant reunion and Camp All-Stars, an overnight program for children, teens and young adults with kidney disease.
Our mission is to improve the health and quality of life of children with neurological, behavioral, and mental health diseases and disorders.
In addition to patient care, we better ourselves through the development of strategic partnerships with clinical research groups locally, nationally and internationally. This emphasis on learning carries over to our teaching and professional educational programs. Education is vital to our vision. We have several accredited residency and fellowship programs, designed to continually improve care through research and education. Our added laboratories strive to make discoveries that lead to advances in neuroscience diagnosis and treatment options.
We are a premier Center of Excellence and destination for management and cure of neurologically-related pediatric diseases/disorders by providing thorough, high quality patient and family-centered care. Combine that with state-of-the-art clinical and translational research, and our professional and community education programs, and you have one of the best pediatric neurological institutes in the world.
Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of TRG deals with diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with rheumatoid disease.
Rheumatoid diseases imply local and systemic diseases of musculoskeletal system and it covers a very wide range of diseases.
Pediatric Rheumatology Division deals with inflammatory diseases of muscles, joints and connective tissues in children and common ones of these complex diseases are as follows; juvenile idiopathic arthritis that implies rheumatism of childhood, Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory diseases of blood vessels.
Other diseases may also involve bones, joints, blood and connective tissues in children and pediatric rheumatology also helps diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Diagnosis and Treatment Services available in Pediatric Rheumatology Division
Many diseases that can affect all organs as well as blood, joints and connective tissues of children are treated by pediatric rheumatologists.
  • Growing pains
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Juvenile dermatomyositis
  • Idiopathic fever episodes
  • Recurrent fever
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever
  • Scleroderma
  • Spondyloarthritis
  • Behçet’s disease
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Polyarteritis nodosa and microscopic polyangitis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Wegener’s granulomatosis
  • Benign hypermobile joint syndrome
We work in cooperation with other departments such as physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, neurology, ophthalmology and orthopedics for diagnosis and treatment of those diseases.
Pediatric urology deals with congenital or acquired diseases of urogenital system and their treatment in pediatric age, ranging from intrauterine life to newborn infants and subsequent periods. Examples of these diseases are hydrocele, cord cyst, undescended testis, circumcision, emergencies of testes and scrotum (acute scrotum and torsion of testicle) and hypospadias.
Surgical repair of hypospadias (it is a congenital condition, where opening of the urethra is located on ventral surface rather than tip of the glans) falls into urologic areas of focus. Surgery can be performed for both primary repairs of hypospadias and revision surgeries.

For healthy adulthood, psychological problems in childhood and adolescence should be prevented before they occur, and if there is a psychiatric illness, it should be treated correctly. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry has critical importance for the individual to lead a healthy life when he/she reaches adulthood, to be a self-confident person, and to treat larger and difficult-to-treat permanent psychiatric diseases in the early period. Compared to the past period, the scope, social activity and requirements of the field of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry are expanding rapidly in our country and in the world. Since it is a very comprehensive field, it is in direct interaction with all biological, sociological, and psychological sciences.


Mental Health in Individuals in Childhood and Adolescence

The physical and mental structures of children and adolescents, which are in constant development, require psychological examination, observation, and treatment processes that go beyond the definitions of mental health in adults and include unique concepts. For this reason, the field of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, which focuses on childhood and adolescence, has been developed in addition to Psychiatry departments that examine the mental health and diseases of adults. Almost every age represents a different mental development process in individuals in childhood and adolescence who progress in the process of becoming an adult. For this reason, in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, different psychological structures, family structures, and environmental factors corresponding to different developmental periods are examined in detail, the psychological developmental stage of the child and adolescent is determined, as possible problems and diseases are determined and necessary diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up processes are successfully applied.


Diseases of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

The stage in human life where the most development and change takes place in terms of both physiological structure and character development is the 0-18 age range, which includes childhood and adolescence periods. All kinds of changes observed in the individual during this period have permanent effects that not only affect this period but also direct the whole life. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, a branch of medicine that focuses on psychological development and psychiatric diseases in this period, is defined by the European Union of Medical Specialists as “the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health problems in children under the age of 18 by a specialist physician with medical methods, standards, and approaches”.


In the Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Diseases, individual psychotherapy (psychoanalytic, supportive, cognitive behavioral therapies, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing), Autogenic Relaxation Therapy, family therapy, drug therapy, and psychometric evaluations are applied and treatment services are provided to children and adolescents aged 0-18. Physicians with expertise in the field of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also receive support from psychologists who are experts in their field in the management of various diagnostic tests and treatment processes. A number of developmental, attention, and intelligence tests are applied by psychologists to help diagnose psychiatric disorders specific to childhood and adolescence. Commonly preferred among these tests are as follows:


Developmental Tests

AGTE The AGTE test, which stands for Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, is a developmental assessment tool applied to infants and children aged 0-6 years. The test, which is applied by marking one of the options of yes, no and don’t know, has 154 questions in total and consists of 4 subtests: Language-Cognitive, Fine Motor, Gross Motor, and Social Skills-Self-Care.

Denver 2 Development Test: In this test, which is one of the measurement tools developed to detect developmental problems that may be encountered in young children, it is evaluated whether the child has the appropriate skills required by the age, while situations that may be seen as developmentally suspicious are measured objectively and children at risk are identified. Consisting of 4 sub-sections, the test consists of 116 questions in total.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Used to measure language development and vocabulary knowledge in children and adolescents between the ages of 2.5-18, the test includes questions aimed at measuring word and concept development with pictures. There are 100 questions in total in the test consisting of questions in the form of selecting one of the 4 pictures and 1 point is taken for each correct answer.

Bender-Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test: This test, which is applied to evaluate visual-motor functions in children, is applied to children between the ages of 5.5 and 11. Children are given 9 different shapes and asked to draw these shapes on a blank paper. The drawings are evaluated and visual intelligence, regression, loss of function, and organic brain damage are analyzed.


Metropolitan School Readiness Tests: These tests, which are applied to preschool children who are preparing to start school, are used to investigate whether the child has school maturity in physical, social, cognitive, and emotional terms. In the tests, issues such as whether the child has the necessary self-care skills and whether the child has completed fine and gross motor muscle development are examined.

Koppitz Human Drawing Test: This test, which is applied to determine the level of emotional maturity in children between the ages of 4-9 and possible problems in the emotional development process, is also used to examine whether the child’s emotional maturity is in direct proportion to age.

Porteus Labyrinths Test: The test, which is not based on verbal explanation and is applied by finding the exit path of 12 labyrinths, aims to determine general ability. It is applied to individuals between the ages of 7.5-14.

OKHT (School Readiness Test): In the OKHT test, the basic knowledge and skills of children younger than 6 years and 4 months who have experienced difficulties in the kindergarten period and who are hesitant about whether they should start first grade are tested. It consists of 7 sections measuring development in different areas and 90 questions in total.

Kent EGY Test: In the Kent EGY test, which is a verbal performance-based test, the intelligence of children between the ages of 6-14 who have no problems in hearing, speech, and verbal expression are examined and possible pathologies are detected. This test, which has no time limit, is based on knowledge and language.

Gesell Development Figures Test: In this test, which measures the development of visual perception, 9 geometric figures ranked from easy to difficult are given and the child is asked to put these figures on paper correctly. This test, which measures performance, has no time limit and is applied to children between the ages of 1-7. According to the test result, the child’s mental age and average intelligence level are determined.

Among the tests mentioned above, those appropriate to the findings obtained during the psychiatrist and psychologist examination are applied and the child’s language cognitive development, psychosocial development, social skills, self-care development, fine motor-coarse motor development, visual perception age, and receptive language ages are measured. If any psychiatric disease suspected during the examination is also seen as a result of the test, the treatment process is initiated appropriately by Child and Adolescent Psychiatry specialists.


Attention Tests

Moxo d-CPT Attention Performance Test: The test, which is applied to detect problems such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, timing disorder, and impulsivity in children, includes visual and auditory distractors. Applied to children and adolescents aged 7 and over, the test can also be used for adults.

Intelligence Tests

R.B. Cattel Test 2A and 3A: The Cattel test developed by R.B. Cattel has differentiated forms such as 2A and 3A according to the age range in which it is applied. The test, which is prepared in a culture-free manner, can be applied in every society. Intelligence and performance level is measured with the test in which individuals in the appropriate age group are asked to answer the form given to them within a certain period of time.

In the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the psychological tests given above, which must be performed by specialists, are meticulously applied and compared with clinical findings. As a result, possible psychological problems are identified, an appropriate treatment plan is determined and the treatment process is initiated to prevent psychological problems. If your child between the ages of 0-18 has emotional or behavioral symptoms or signs that may adversely affect his/her daily life, mental and physical development, school success, and relationships with other people, you can apply to child psychiatry specialists.

Dermatology is a branch of medicine, which studies structure, functions and diseases of skin, its appendages (hair, nails) and mucous coat, and also methods of prevention and treatment of skin diseases. Some of the most widespread dermatologic diseases are pustular, parasitic and mucous skin diseases, virus dermatosis, lichen, eczema, psoriasis, diseases of hair, sweat and oil glands, and vitiligo (pigmentation disorder). 

Successful and effective treatment of skin diseases depends largely on early diagnostics and further prevention treatment of a disease.  Modern dermatology takes a wholistic approach to resolving a person’s skin problems. At the initial stage of any treatment and recovery process a complex check-up is performed, including laboratory tests and diagnostic examinations.

The purpose of examinations is to detect the real reason of disease and further eliminate not just local skin affection, but the systemic disturbance in the organism as well. Patient suffering from skin disease of varying severity is usually prescribed medicament and non-medicament therapy combined with special diet. Such combination of external and internal impact factors is in most cases essential to achieve complete recovery.  Achievements of modern microbiology, immunology and biochemistry make it possible to diagnose a disease at an early stage, conduct successful and painless treatment. Today’s dermatologist employs a whole range of innovative developments and pharmacologic medications of the new generation. They include laser, radio- and phototherapy, digital skin visualization with video microscopic equipment and the following computer processing of results, cryo technologies, pharmacological drugs and medications for external application.

Clinical Dietetics:

Clinical Dieticians stationed in Divisional Hospitals play a very important role in the health care team in providing nutritional care to patients in various states and conditions. Clinical Dieticians monitor, assess and optimise nutritional status based on the patient’s medical condition and /or nutrition adequacy. A patient’s medical/surgical and nutritional need is conferred with the physician, along with a recommendation for special dietary feeds. Patients are also taught by Clinical Dieticians on nutritionally sound food choices to prevent further complication of diseases, speed up recovery, restore good health and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Rehabilitation is care that can help you get back, keep, or improve abilities that you need for daily life. These abilities may be physical, mental, and/or cognitive (thinking and learning). You may have lost them because of a disease or injury, or as a side effect from a medical treatment. Rehabilitation can improve your daily life and functioning.
Who needs rehabilitation?
Rehabilitation is for people who have lost abilities that they need for daily life. Some of the most common causes include
  • Injuries and trauma, including burns, fractures (broken bones), traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injuries
  • Stroke
  • Severe infections
  • Major surgery
  • Side effects from medical treatments, such as from cancer treatments
  • Certain birth defects and genetic disorders
  • Developmental disabilities
  • Chronic pain, including back and neck pain
What are the goals of rehabilitation?
The overall goal of rehabilitation is to help you get your abilities back and regain independence. But the specific goals are different for each person. They depend on what caused the problem, whether the cause is ongoing or temporary, which abilities you lost, and how severe the problem is. For example,
A person who has had a stroke may need rehabilitation to be able to dress or bathe without help
An active person who has had a heart attack may go through cardiac rehabilitation to try to return to exercising
Someone with a lung disease may get pulmonary rehabilitation to be able to breathe better and improve their quality of life
What happens in a rehabilitation program?
When you get rehabilitation, you often have a team of different health care providers helping you. They will work with you to figure out your needs, goals, and treatment plan. The types of treatments that may be in a treatment plan include
  • Assistive devices, which are tools, equipment, and products that help people with disabilities move and function
  • Cognitive rehabilitation therapy to help you relearn or improve skills such as thinking, learning, memory, planning, and decision making
  • Mental health counseling
  • Music or art therapy to help you express your feelings, improve your thinking, and develop social connections
  • Nutritional counseling
  • Occupational therapy to help you with your daily activities
  • Physical therapy to help your strength, mobility, and fitness
  • Recreational therapy to improve your emotional well-being through arts and crafts, games, relaxation training, and animal-assisted therapy
  • Speech-language therapy to help with speaking, understanding, reading, writing and swallowing
  • Treatment for pain
  • Vocational rehabilitation to help you build skills for going to school or working at a job
Depending on your needs, you may have rehabilitation in the providers’ offices, a hospital, or an inpatient rehabilitation center. In some cases, a provider may come to your home. If you get care in your home, you will need to have family members or friends who can come and help with your rehabilitation.
Gastroenterology is a subspecialty of internal medicine and interested in diagnosis and treatment of digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and liver, gallbladder and biliary tract, pancreas and spleen. Medical Tourism Services is able to provide world standard diagnosis and treatment in Turkey. International patients choose Turkey for advanced technologies and experienced specialist who have global work experience in Europe and U.S.
Today, Turkey is one of top five countries in medical tourism. Reason of that is developed medical infrastructure, more than 40 JCI accredited facilities, qualified medical tourism agencies and all inclusive treatment services that provide more satisfy level for patients during medical journey.
General surgery includes wound healing issues and physical injuries alongside treatments of local problems on body, too.
General surgery is one of the most extensive unit of the medical world in terms of sub units.
Lots of operations in the medical world are applied in the field of general surgery nowadays. That is to say lots of operations are applied by expert general surgeons.
What is general surgery ?
General surgery is a surgical unit which includes the treatments of problems like wound healing and physicial injuries alongside treatments of systematic and local problems on people with surgery.
General surgery works cooperatively and coordinated with other disciplines because of the width of the interest. This coordination contributes recovery of patient in a short time.
What is the most important stage of general surgery ?
The most important stage of the general surgery is making the patients achieve the former quality of their life Conducting this process successfuly on many general surgery operations hinges upon the patient’s effort and cooperation with other medical areas.
Large majority of general surgery consist of cancer patients. On diagnosing this and diseases like this , department of surgery works with other areas. Studies done by surgery department with other medical areas help diagnosing treatment method on diseases especially type of cancer for patients.
  • Operations applied on General Surgery
  • Breast cancer and benign diseases of breast
  • Diseases of thyroid gland ( goiter, hyperthyroid )
  • Benign, malignant tumors and cysts of liver
  • Obstructive jaundices
  • Several soft-tissue infections
  • Esophageal cancer and benign diseases of esophagus
  • Stomach cancer, problems of stomach and duodenum
  • Gastric balloon treatment for obese patients
  • Surgical diseases of small bowel and bowe obstructions
  • The colon and rectum tumors, inflammatory diseases
  • Anorectal diseases ( tumors, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, fistula )
  • Galbladder and paths, galbladder stones and tumors
  • Pancreatic cysts and tumors
  • Traumas and emergency surgery
  • Acute and chronic pancreatitis
  • Surgical diseases of the splin
  • Abdominal wall and ingenual hernias
  • General surgery keeps in step with developing technology, too. Thus, operations like gallbladder that was done in an open way earlier, have been able to be done in a closed manner. Patients may recover and return back to their normal lives in a short time after many operations by using technology active and productive.

Thoracic surgery is a medical science that deals with the trauma and surgical treatment of diseases of organs and regions (chest wall, ribs, lungs, lung membranes, mediastinum, diaphragm, esophagus) other than the heart and main vessels located in the chest cavity. Congenital deformations in the thorax, tumor formations, stenosis, and obstructions in the respiratory tract, tumors, and congenital or later developed diseases of the lungs, diaphragm, and esophagus are diagnosed, treated and followed up by thoracic surgery clinics. Breast surgery is a branch of a different branch and does not fall within the specialty of thoracic surgery clinics.


In our hospitals, we perform surgical treatments of chest and lung diseases from newborn to adult with our staff consisting of oncology, thoracic diseases and surgery specialists and radiology specialists, and state-of-the-art devices.




Thoracic surgery units deal with cancer diseases of all organs in the thoracic cavity except the heart and great vessels. In addition to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgical interventions are often required for cancers of these organs. Surgical procedures usually involve the removal of malignant tumors and some healthy tissue around them, supported by drug therapies. Surgical operations applied in cancer cases provide a very high rate of recovery, especially in cases that have not metastasized to different surrounding tissues and organs.



Emphysema, which is commonly seen in people who smoke and are constantly exposed to cigarette smoke, is a health problem that develops as a result of structural deterioration of the alveoli, the smallest unit responsible for respiration in the lungs. In the treatment, it is essential to apply lifestyle changes to prevent progression as well as improve the current situation. In surgical treatment, appropriate thoracic surgery techniques such as resection (removal) of the diseased area, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and median sternotomy are performed. The interventions can be performed on one or both lungs depending on the extent of the disease and the patient’s condition.



Tuberculosis, also popularly known as tuberculosis, is a bacterial infectious disease of the lungs. In addition to antibacterial treatment in tuberculosis, which requires long-term treatment, especially when the disease is advanced, surgical interventions are also needed in some cases. Especially in patients who have achieved a certain success rate in treatment, surgical treatment is started and procedures are performed by expert thoracic surgeons by choosing the appropriate one from applications such as decortication procedure, wedge resection, unilateral or bilateral lobectomy, and segmentectomy, which is applied by removing the surface layer of the lung.



Thoracic surgery applications applied with new techniques developed with the help of the opportunities provided by modern medicine are called minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Robotic surgery and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery applications are innovative applications that increase the success rate and shorten the recovery time. With the help of minimally invasive surgical techniques, surgical treatment of many diseases in the field of thoracic surgery, such as most lung cancers, and tumor formations related to the thymus gland and myasthenia gravis disease, is successfully performed today.



The treatment of traumas related to the organs and tissues that thoracic surgery deals with due to factors such as accidents, injuries with cutting and piercing instruments, foreign bodies in the lungs and respiratory tract, and exposure to excessive pressure is carried out by surgical operations to be performed by specialists in thoracic surgery clinics. The treatment of pseudocysts and hematomas is also included in this field.



Fluid accumulation in the chest cavity, which manifests itself with symptoms such as chest pain and shortness of breath during coughing and breathing, develops due to the accumulation of fluid in the area between the ribs and muscles due to various reasons. Some diseases of the lungs, cirrhosis, kidney, and liver diseases, and organ failure are some of the factors that can cause this problem. The accumulated fluid can be drained with the help of surgical interventions. However, the main purpose of the treatment includes the procedures to be carried out to identify and eliminate the factor causing the accumulation of fluid.



Pneumothorax is a health problem that develops due to perforation of the lung surface as a result of trauma occurring directly in the lungs, organs in the neighborhood of the lungs, or ribs. In this condition, which is also called pneumothorax and lung collapse, air and fluid accumulation may also occur in the area where the perforation occurs. Since it is not possible for the lungs to expand by stretching as they should, severe pain may occur during breathing. The treatment is performed by surgical operation in thoracic surgery units.



One of the surgical techniques used in the treatment of lung diseases is volume reduction surgery. This treatment method, it is aimed obtaining a healthy lung by removing the diseased area from the lung and expanding the healthy part. The operation is performed in thoracic surgery clinics using innovative techniques.



Mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy techniques, which are used to access the inner and middle parts of the lungs, are frequently used techniques in chest diseases. If performed as a closed operation with the help of endoscopy, the procedure is called mediastinoscopy, and if performed as an open surgical operation, it is called mediastinotomy. It is generally used in the diagnosis and treatment of tumors related to lung cancer.



The endoscopy procedure, which allows visualization of the respiratory tract and bronchi with the help of an unbending tube and a lighted endoscope, is called bronchoscopy. In the procedure performed for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases in the region, it is also possible to take a biopsy when necessary.



Another sub-branch of endoscopy used in thoracic surgery is oesophagoscopy. It can be applied to investigate diseases related to the esophagus, also known as the esophagus, to determine the size and width of the esophagus, to take biopsies of suspicious lesions when necessary, and to treat some diseases with interventional radiology techniques.



The Nuss technique, which is applied in the treatment of congenital or later-developed deformations in the chest wall, provides the repair of the hollows in the chest cage with the help of a special technique. Thanks to this technique, which is a simple and effective treatment method, deformities that lead to the development of significant complications in patients can be treated in as little as 20 minutes by opening very small incisions.



Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), one of the modern and innovative methods used in the field of thoracic surgery, is a method that allows many serious diseases related to chest diseases to be performed with closed surgery techniques, requiring fewer incisions and a shorter recovery period. In operations performed with this technique, special metal instruments are inserted into the chest cavity through small incisions of 1.5-2 cm, and the necessary procedures for the treatment of the disease are performed.



The surgical procedures required for the treatment of diseases such as rupture, paralysis, and tumors related to the diaphragm are called diaphragmatic surgery. These include procedures such as stretching the diaphragm and eliminating looseness, repair of structural disorders and tears, and removal of tumors.



Any surgical intervention performed on the trachea, also known as the trachea or windpipe, is called tracheal surgery. The most common surgical operations performed on the trachea include drilling holes in the trachea to open the respiratory tract and placing stents to treat stenosis in the trachea. These operations, which require precision, are performed by thoracic surgeons who are specialized in their field.


If you have any disease that falls within the expertise of the thoracic surgery unit or if you need to undergo a surgical operation, you can apply to a health institution with state-of-the-art equipment and specialist physicians and have the necessary examinations and examinations. You can plan your treatment and operation process in line with the principles recommended by your physician.

The symptoms of lung cancer include shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, coughing up blood from the mouth, chest and side pain, back and shoulder pain, weight loss, weakness, loss of appetite, night sweats, and fever. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. What are the diseases diagnose and treat with TRG? Lung Cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Asthma İnterstitial Lung Disease Sarcoidosis Tuberculosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Embolism

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye disease. Their credentials include an M.D. or D.O. degree in medicine, followed by an additional four years of residency. Additional training may be sought through a fellowship in a particular specialty of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to medically treat eye disease, implement laser therapy, and perform incisional surgery when warranted.
Opthalmology Treatments
  • Vitrectomy
  • Cornea Transplant
  • Cataract Surgery
  • Macular Degeneration Surgery
  • Lasik- Laser Refraction

Hematology is a branch of medicine involving the study of blood diseases.  Treatment of a large majority of these diseases is vital. Important developments have occurred in hematology in recent years. The rate of treatability of hematologic cancers is rapidly increasing. 

What are hematologic diseases? 

  • Anemia, bone marrow deficiency or shortened lifetime of blood cells: Insufficiency of hemoglobin, the substance which carries oxygen in the blood, is called anemia, insufficiency of white cells is called leucopenia, insufficiency of cells called thrombocyte which makes blood clots is called thrombocytopenia. Anemia and impairment of red blood cells can have various reasons. For example: Sickle cell anemia and Thalassemia.

  • Multiple myeloma, Hodgkin and Non-Hodking lymphoma, acute and chronic leukemia (AML, ALL, KML, KLL), myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative diseases and other bone marrow, blood and lymph gland diseases

  • Bleeding and clotting disorders: Disorders in the blood clotting mechanism, bleeding, abnormal clotting.

  • Diseases related to immune system

With the technological innovations in today’s modern medicine, Internal medicine has many sub specialties; however it still is the direct solution center to all adult diseases except for conditions that require surgery.
The Internal medicine Unit is the answer to all problems like fiery diseases, metabolic diseases, kidney disease and liver disease.
Medical branches like Nephrology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Pulmonary diseases, Hematology, Oncology, Infectious diseases, Rheumatology Immunology- allergy, Diabetes and Cardiology are subspecialties of internal medicine.
Patients apply to internal medicine clinics whether they have abdominal pain, digestive problems, lack of appetite or cough. The general principle of the internal medicine is to objectively evaluate and treat the patent.
Once the internist diagnoses the problem, he/she may direct the patient to a surgeon if necessary.
Pre-operatively and postoperatively; heart, respiratory, kidney and liver problems of many patients are solved by internal medicine specialists.
Briefly, the Internal Medicine Unit is the primary Unit to apply for all adult health problems.
Patients who are suffering from diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, blood diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, infectious diseases, respiratory problems, hormone problems and obesity should apply to the Internal Medicine Unit.
We also offer check up programs designed for different needs of every age and sex; and treatments for hand and foot sweating.
The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology has always consistently improved its over all quality year by year and its strict ethical principles have never been compromised while delivering the very best in healthcare services. Covering all up-to-date and evidence-based practices recognized by the international medical community, the department provides “team-based services” that are perfectly in line with today’s health services requirements. The department offers a balanced blend of experienced senior physicians and dynamic energetic younger physicians with an essential duel emphasis on professional ethics and the cultivation of a team spirit ethos.
The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology works as a tertiary-care reference center meeting conditions that could not be fully diagnosed by third party facilities or conditions that are subject to controversies regarding treatment strategies or disorders that are jointly followed up by more than one department.
We have clinical councils that can make decisions in line with evidence-based medicine by jointly discussing these difficult cases. All these approaches clearly demonstrate the department’s forward-thinking cohesive mentality. The Obstetrics and IVF Center is also known as an academic clinic by both local and international healthcare organizations and is regarded as an important reference point in this field of medicine. We continuously consolidate this aspect with scientific meetings held at regular intervals, courses, and congresses as well as academic papers published in prestigious international journals.
Considering each patient’s overall benefit, these treatments are included in their payment packages. The department renders healthcare services that are fully compliant to international standards and meet provisions of ethics in line with evidence-based medicine.
Common cardiology procedures and treatments
• ECG – Electrocardiogram
• Doppler Studies – utilize ultrasound to examine the heart and blood vessels.
• TEE Echocardiogram – an alternative form of echocardiogram where the probe is inserted into the patients esophagus.
• Stress Echocardiogram – an echocardiogram performed before, during, and after exercise.
• TMT – Treadmill Test.
• Holter – a machine that continuously records the heartbeat for a period of 24 to 48 hrs.
• Thallium Stress/Resting Test – an radioactive isotope is injected into the blood stream so that blood flow can be monitored.
• Cardiac CT-Calcium Scoring – Computed Tomography or CAT Scan to check coronary plaque levels.
• Coronary MR Angiography – Magnetic Resonance Angiography uses a magnetic field to provide images of the blood vessels and arteries.
• Multi-Gated Radio Nuclear Ventriculography – A MUGA scan provides video of the functions of the heart ventricles, valves, and chambers.
• Dual Head Gamma Camera Interventional Cardiology – a camera capable of 180° and 360° SPECT studies, planar-gated blood pool, and gated SPECT perfusion with attenuation correction.
• Angiography – a medical imaging method that can provide internal pictures of the heart, blood vessels, and internal organs.
• Angioplasty – a procedure that is used to expand obstructed or narrowed arteries.
• Stenting – a tube that is placed into the body to enable blood flow.
• Balloon Mitral and Pulmonary Valvuloplasty – uses a small balloon to open a narrow or obstructed heart valve.
• Rotational and Directional Artherectomy– a minimally invasive procedure used to treat arteriosclerosis.
• Open Heart Surgery – when the patient’s heart is open and surgery is conducted on the internal structures of the organ.
• Minimally Invasive Procedures – there are now a number of minimally invasive cardiac procedures with little to no recovery time required.
• Vascular Grafting – performed to redirect blood flow.
• Aortic Aneurysm Surgery – surgery to correct an enlargement of the aorta.
• Arrhythmia Surgery – surgery to correct an irregular heartbeat.
• Pediatric Surgery – cardiac surgery for children.
• Pacemaker Installation – artificial heart implantation.
Cardiovascular and heart surgery abroad is increasing in demand with the growing obesity rates and rise in healthcare costs. Cardiovascular disease, commonly known as heart disease, is the class of diseases that involves the heart or blood vessels. Heart Disease is on the rise and is one of the significant health problems and death. The early diagnosis of cardiac diseases is vitally important for successful treatment.
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Heart Surgery 
Valvular Heart Surgery Abroad
Valvular heart disease is characterized by a damaged or defective heart valve – any of the four major heart valves may be affected by this disease: the tricuspid and aortic valves in the right side of the heart as well as the mitral and aortic valves in the left side of the heart. The valve may not close properly so the blood flows backward. Or the valve may become narrowed so the blood cannot flow easily.
Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease or atherosclerotic heart disease refers to the failure of the coronary circulation caused by the build-up of plaques within the walls of the arteries. Chest pain and heart attack are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary artery disease. In general, this disease is closely related to high fat intake, lack of exercise or obesity.
Cardiomyopathy refers to “heart muscle disease” and it is the deterioration of the heart muscle. Patients with cardiomyopathy are at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.
Interventional Cardiology
Interventional cardiology deals with the catheter-based treatment of structural heart diseases. Coronary Angioplasty is a non-surgical method to widen local constrictions in coronary arteries. In some cases, a pre-installed metal cage (stent) is permanently left to prevent a possible constriction.
Cardiovascular Surgery Options Abroad
Heart Valve Surgery
Heart valve surgery can replace or repair the four major heart faulty valves.
Coronary Heart Surgery
Patients with coronary heart disease often need cardiac bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery). Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass or Beating Heart is a form of coronary artery surgery without a heart-lung machine. Heart surgery abroad is an effective solution to saving money on high healthcare costs from ones home country.
  • Cardiology Surgical Techniques
  • Small Incision Surgery
  • Robotic Surgery
  • Cardiac Valve Repair without Open Surgery
The ear, nose and throat region is associated with the three key senses of hearing, smell and taste, and is very sensitive as a result.
ENT covers conditions, injuries and disorders of the ears, the upper and lower airways, the mouth, the throat, the oesophagus and the larynx. ENT also treats sensory perception, speech, swallowing and balance problems, as well as performing plastic, cosmetic and microsurgical procedures.
  • Medical specialities
  • Disorders of the ear
  • Balance disorders/vertigo
  • Hearing loss
  • Tinnitus
  • Diseases of the nose
  • Deviated septum
  • Nasal polyps
  • Disorders of the throat
  • Acute renal failure
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
  • Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities
  • Genetic and non-genetic renal diseases (e.g., polycystic kidney disease, Alport’s syndrome, glomerulonephritis, end-stage renal disease)
  • Hypertension and diabetes based kidney complications*
*It is important to note that hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes of kidney failure. It is very important to control hypertension and diabetes to slow down chronic kidney disease. Often Chronic kidney disease will also lead to hypertension.
Renal: : Another word for “kidney”, from the Latin word “ren” meaning kidneys, used as an adjective.
Dialysis: : A process of cleaning waste and other unwanted substances from blood.
Apheresis: : A process of taking out only certain parts of a patient’s blood, and returning the rest to the same patient.
24-hour urine collection to measure the components of urine
Blood examination
Complete blood count (CBC) with differential
Serum creatinine
Electrolyte content (sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, phosphate, albumin)
Total protein
Cholesterol level
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine (a preferred method for detecting chronic kidney disease and other kidney related issues)
Kidney imaging studies: Renal ultrasound, kidney dopplers, CT scan, magnetic resonance angiography
To evaluate for urinary tract obstruction (e.g. kidney stones)
To estimate the size of the kidney
To evaluate for polycystic renal disease
To detect conditions such as renal artery stenosis
Quantitation of proteinuria (detection of the levels of protein in urine, a key indicator of kidney problems)
Urine protein/creatinine ratio
Urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio
Urinalysis and review of urinary sediment (for the detection of chronic kidney disease and the identification of the type of kidney disease)
Apheresis (plasmapheresis, double filtration, immonoabsorbtion)
Kidney dialysis (in the Dialysis Center)
Liver dialysis
Nutritional consultation: Advice about diet controlled program from nutritionist who is special in kidney’s disease
Renal replacement therapies
Intermittent hemodialysis (ultra-pure water, hemodiafiltration )
Continuous renal replacement therapy
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Kidney transplantation (Only donations from living relations for international patients)
Pharmacists provide pharmaceutical care for kidney disease patients who usually take several medications together. Our pharmacists:
Provide knowledge and understanding of medications, e.g. information on how to take medications, how medications interact with the body, and medication side effects (and how to minimize them)
Educate to improve patient’s desire for drug administration adherence
Assess and identify drug related problems such as drug interaction, duplication, allergy, etc. and work with your doctor on how to minimize negative side effects
Perform medication review for patients who have more than one physician or disease
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system (and its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system); including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system.
A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery.
There is significant overlap between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
Neurology Treatments
Vitrectomy + Retinal Detachment
Micro -disectomies For Cervical And Lumbar Discs
VP Shunt
CSF Shunt Procedures
Brain Tumour Excision Skull Base
Brain Tumour Treatment
Brain Tumour Excision (Pitutory Tumour)
Discectomy- Surgery For Slipped Disc
Deep Brain Stimulation
Chronic Sub-dual Hematoma
Burr-Hole Aspiration For Abscess
Spinal Fusion- 1 Level
Spinal Fusion – 2 Level
Brachial Plexus Injuries / Stereotactic Procedures
All Elective Craniotomies
Nuclear medicine is a branch of science that deals with the imaging of the predetermined area of the body and, when necessary, the destruction of tumor-like formations in the relevant tissue, bone or organ. Nuclear medicine methods providing information about the structure and functionality of organs, bones and tissues are used in the diagnosis and treatment of many important diseases. Low amounts of radioactive material and radiopharmaceuticals are used in nuclear imaging methods. These glows displayed by special cameras connected to the computer provide detailed information about the part of the body being viewed. Many types of cancer, heart health, endocrine, gastrointestinal and neurological disorders, as well as other abnormalities in the body, are diagnosed, severely and treated by administering a small amount of radioactive material to the person to determine the exact location of the molecular activity in the body. Therefore, with nuclear medicine methods, many different diseases can be diagnosed and treated before the symptoms that affect the person appear. In the nuclear medicine department, devices such as PET / CT and SPECT / CT are used.
What is PET / CT?
While PET is a scanning method that enables the body to evaluate the metabolic and physiological aspects, CT enables the determination of anatomical changes in the body. Although PET / CT is mostly used in the diagnosis and staging of cancer or, in other words, determining the prevalence, it allows the determination of the presence of living tissue in the heart muscle of the person who had a heart attack, the detection of epilepsy focus and the detection of diseases such as Alzheimer’s at an early stage. In addition to all these, it is also used to diagnose diseases such as fever of unknown cause and to find infection foci. PET / CT provides precise information about where and when the disease occurs. Therefore, the treatment approach may change after PET / CT examination and unnecessary surgical procedures are avoided. In some cases, according to the PET / CT result, it may be decided to remove the tumor by surgery instead of medicated treatment in patients with no spread. PET / CT is also used to monitor the body’s response to cancer drugs. Structural change and cellular activity in the relevant region are evaluated numerically.
 Which diseases is nuclear medicine used in?
The reason for administering medication to the patient in imaging methods performed by intravenous, injection or oral administration of low radioactive material is that the drug reaches the targeted organ or tissue and shows uptake there. As the drug shows uptake in the area, the tissue or organ is imaged with special cameras. The images transferred to the computer are evaluated by nuclear medicine specialists. Nuclear medicine applications are applied in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Some of the ailments categorized by department are:
Pulmonary Disorders: It is applied in the diagnosis of blood clot in the lung.
Kidney Diseases: It is used for kidney infections, to investigate the presence of urine leakage in the kidneys and to visualize the obstruction in the urinary tract.
Heart Diseases: In some hypertension cases, it is applied to investigate the cause of the disease, to diagnose coronary artery disease, and to evaluate those treated with bypass surgery.
Neurological Disorders: It is used in the diagnosis of dementia and some paralysis diseases in order to determine the focus of Parkinson’s, epilepsy, to evaluate patients who are planned for epilepsy, as well as brain, neck and vascular surgeries.
Oncological Disorders: It is applied for determining the presence and location of the tumor, determining the tumor stage, determining whether the tumor has spread to other tissues and organs, and pain treatment in cancerous bones.
Orthopedic Disorders: It is used to detect hidden fractures and bone infections.
Other Disorders: It is used for the examination of lymph tracts, detection of hidden infection, evaluation of salivary glands as well as goiter, gall bladder, intestinal bleeding, esophagus and stomach diseases.
In this department, we both diagnose and treat disorders and diseases that develop in the musculoskeletal system. Using modern treatment techniques, we aim to have our patients return healthy to their daily lives in as short a time as possible.
In this department, we both diagnose and treat disorders and diseases that develop in the musculoskeletal system. Using modern treatment techniques, we aim to have our patients return healthy to their daily lives in as short a time as possible.
In case of a severe trauma, our emergency department is equiped to treat our patients as quickly as possible.
Diseases and disorders diagnosed and treated in our orthopedics and traumatology department are as follows:    
  • Firearm Injury and Treatment
  • Broken bones and bone protrusions
  • Tears in muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • Sporting injuries
  • Walking disorders and congenital deformities
  • Congenital hip protrusion
  • Skew foot
  • Flat foot
  • Bandy legs
Plastic Surgery is one ot the most popular specialities in the world. Turkey’s rank is 6th in Europe, and medical tourism sector is growing since, results of aesthetic treatment in Turkey are successful and high. Local hospitals provide all the procedure in this field: mammoplasty, rhinoplasty, liposuction, genital aesthetics, abdominoplasty, etc. Plastic surgery is represented by best hospitals and doctors that have proved themselves as world level specialists in this field.
All the procedure conducted within plastic surgery are made according to the international quality standards and low costs. That is why patients all over the world prefer to receive their treatments here. Plastic surgery success is a result of overall quality of Turkey in Medical Tourism.
Popular Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeries in Turkey
Breast Surgery: 
Mammaplasty is the plastic surgery of the breast to re-construct its shape, size, position and to correct congenital anomalies and deforms. 
There are various types of Mammaplasty:
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Breast Reconstruction
  • Breast Reduction – Gynecomastia
  • Breast Lifting
Rhinoplasty surgery is the process of correcting the nose structure that’s unpleasant to image by surgical methods to make person’s liking. The nose, in terms of function, is the organ that allows the breath we take to enter the body in a healthy way.
Congenital or post-traumatic nasal deformities can only be corrected by rhinoplasty surgery. We aren’t only correcting the image while doing the surgery, we provide clarification of the airways for healthy breathing.
Vaginoplasty and Labiaplasty  
Vaginoplasty, also known as vaginal rejuvenation, is a procedure that tightens the muscles inside the vagina removes any excess skin. This creates a more appealing appearance as well as improving the satisfaction and pleasure of sexual intercourse.
Labiaplasty is a cosmetic genital surgery to alter the inner and outer labia. There are two main types of women seeking genital surgery ones with congenital conditions such as intersex and ones with no underlying condition but experiencing physical discomfort or want to change the look of their genitals because they are not within a normal range. Women are either born with large labia or develop enlarged labia as result of childbirth or aging.
Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck)
Abdominal skin sagging that requires abdominoplasty occurs usually in women. However, as a result of excessive weight gain in men, sagging and loosening occurs due to deformation in the abdomen, belly skin and muscles. The most important factor in women is past pregnancies. Significant weight loss also causes the abdomen to loosen and sag. With abdominoplasty, the frontal wall of the abdomen, which is enlarged after pregnancy is narrowed, relaxed and separated abdomen muscles are tightened, the excess of sagging abdominal skin taken together with the fat.
The process of absorbing apparently excess and undesirable fats in the body by a medical device with suction function over a special, hollow cannula, is called liposuction.
Other Treatments
Although there is a large cosmetic surgery market in Turkey, people also come for less glamorous procedures, including:
Brazilian Butt Lift
Slim and flat-bottomed ladies desire their buttocks to be more specific, especially when wearing pants. Since it’s not possible to obtain enough fat from thin people with liposuction, the bottom is shaped with silicone implants.
Blepharoplasty (Eyelid surgery)
One of the first areas of the face to exhibit signs of aging is the area around the eyes. Under-eye bags and sagging upper eyelids that come with age can be corrected through cosmetic eyelid surgery, also known as blepharoplasty. This relatively minor cosmetic surgery procedure can refresh the appearance of the face and leave it looking years younger.
Face Lift
Facelift surgery, clinically known as rhytidectomy, is a procedure used to reduce the appearance of facial wrinkles and other telltale signs of aging, with the goal of improving the overall appearance of the face and jaw. Facelift surgery can help to reverse the harmful effects of time, stress, and exposure to the elements. To perform this procedure, a plastic surgeon will lift and tighten the underlying muscles of the face to create more aesthetically pleasing contours appearance and rejuvenate the facial structure. Then he or she will remove excess pockets of fat and skin that can contribute to an aged, tired appearance.
Ear Surgery (Otoplasty)
Otoplasty surgery is the plastic surgery to improve the look of the ear (the shape, size and position). There are various types of Otoplasty like pinning the ears to correct ears that stick out more than usual and reducing the size of the ear which are larger than average. It can also build up a cupped ear (ear smaller than average) or correct a lop ear (ear that tips forward and down from the top). Replacement for a missing ear from a trauma or birth defect can also be done.
Otoplasty creates a natural shape while bringing balance and proportion to the ear and face.
Botox Derma-Filler
Botulinum toxin, which is very effective in wrinkles especially in between eyebrows, forehead and crow’s feet around the eyes, is widely used in the cosmetic sector. 
Lip Augmentation
Lip augmentation with lip implants or dermal fillers plumps up lips and enhances the look of the entire face. Those who have thin lips can especially benefit from lip enhancement. Recovery time after a lip augmentation procedure is typically short, making lip enhancement one of the easiest ways to make the face more visually appealing.
What is Rheumatism?
In general, problems of our muscles, bones and joints are defined as Rheumatism. Rheumatism is not a single disease. In general Rheumatic Diseases can be assorted in two sections: inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases. This differentiation is important as treatment of these two conditions is completely different.
Rheumatic disorders are considered as diseases of the elderly, but controversy inflammatory rheumatism may arise at all ages. Early diagnosis and treatment is important not only in protection of the joints in long term but also in prevention of life threatening outcomes. Though there are several rheumatic disorders, diagnosis of rheumatism might take long time.
Do you suspect from Rheumatism?
If you have one or more of the following complaints, you may suspect that you have rheumatism. However, rheumatism should only be diagnosed by your doctor. It is widely known that rheumatism is an advanced age disease, but it can arise at any age.
Resistant joint pain
Tenderness in joints
Inflammation with swelling, stiffness, warmth and redness in joints
Deformity in joints
Difficulty in using the joints, loss of motion or flexibility
Especially in mornings, stiffness on the whole body lasting more than 30 minutes, back pain more in the mornings
Patient Assessment Process in the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Başkent University Ankara Hospital is as following:
Detailed history taking is at utmost importance for accurate diagnosis and treatment for Rheumatologic Disorders. It is preferred to assess Foreign Patients with their native languages, fort his sake interpretation services are available at the hospital. Following the initial assessment, required rheumatologic tests are requested by physicians. Results of these tests are received in general within a few days. Patients are contacted by phone calls or e-mail communication for follow-up.
Applications of Medical Genetics
Cancer genetics
The patient audience for cancer genetics consists of individuals whose first-degree family members or relatives have been diagnosed with specific types of cancer. Breast, ovarian, colonic, pancreatic, uterine, gastric cancers and some cancers of prostate and thyroid gland are among the notable types. Genetic risk of predisposition to cancer goes up quite a bit particularly in case of specific cancer types (ovarian, pancreatic, male breast cancer, pheochromocytoma, neuroendocrine tumors) in the presence of  the following factors: Specific cancer features (triple-negative breast cancer, high-grade or metastatic prostate cancer), diagnosis at a young age (breast and colon cancer below the age of 50) and multiple or bilateral (breast, kidney etc.) cancers in patients themselves or their family members. Another risk group involves patients whose family members on one parental side have been diagnosed with types of cancer associated with each other, such as breast/ovarian, colon/uterus, sarcoma/leukemia/intracranial tumor.
Our physicians take the anamnesis of patients, review their investigation results and look into their detailed family history during a genetic consultation session, which lasts 30-45 minutes. Afterwards, genetic investigations suitable for the patient are determined, and interpretation of possible results are shared with them in detail. This allows the patient to make an informed decision on having genetic tests performed. Genetic investigations make it possible to find out genetic predisposition to cancer within a family, review treatment and protective surgery options, and employ screening programs for a chance of early diagnosis among family members at risk. Genetic test results are later evaluated together with the patient in a second consultation session, where individuals are informed further on follow-up, precautions and tests aimed at diagnosing other family members at risk.  
Genetic consultation in the pre-conceptional and gestational period
Our prenatal genetics team offers genetic consultancy services and plans genetic screening and diagnostic tests for couples who present during pregnancy or the pre-conceptional period. Expecting parents are inquired about the family histories and the ongoing course of pregnancy during the genetic consultancy session, which lasts 30-45. This is followed with a risk evaluation and determination of appropriate genetic screening and/or diagnostic investigations in accordance with familial risks. Tests and risks are explained to the couple in detail. Pregnancies where an fetal anomaly has been detected are admitted to the perinatology council and evaluated in a holistic manner. Test results are shared in a second session of genetic consultation, allowing the couple to make an informed decision about pregnancy. A suitable follow-up schedule is drafted by our physicians in line with their decision. 
Pediatric genetic diseases
Pediatric genetic diseases is a broad category that includes various conditions such as:
  • Congenital anomalies 
  • Chronic diseases
  • Chronic deficits
  • Mental deficiency
  • Growth-developmental delay
A child who has been affected by genetic disease may have either inherited the condition from one or both of the parents or be manifesting the genetic disorder for the first time. These cases are usually referred to for planning of genetic investigations after they have been clinically assessed at other departments and found to be suspicious for genetic conditions. The initial clinical evaluation may last up to 1 and a half hour and consists of inquiring personal and familial medical history, review of available medical records and a detailed physical examination. Results of genetic tests are conveyed to family members by our genetics advisors. Follow-up, additional investigations and consultations at other departments are planned on the basis of the diagnosis, and family members may be presented with various options aimed at mitigating risk in future pregnancies. 
Muscle diseases council
Weekly neurology-medical genetics council meetings are being held for the first time in Turkey under the umbrella of the Muscle Diseases Center of Koç University Hospital in order to draft patient-specific diagnostic algorithms. 
Perinatology-medical genetics meetings
Pregnancies where multiple or major fetal structural anomalies have been identified are evaluated at perinatology-medical genetics councils. Decisions on genetic investigations and follow-up are discussed at this council.
Multidisciplinary tumor councils
Our specialists discuss genetic test results of patients, as the case may require, at hematology, breast, gyneco-oncology, colorectal and other tumor council meetings to devise comprehensive treatment options. 
Molecular diagnosis of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy
Our department stands out as the only center in Turkey where molecular diagnosis of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy can be made. Used for this purpose, the Molecular Combing System was integrated to our laboratory in 2019. 
Immunomagnetic cell separation
The immunomagnetic separation method is utilized in cases of multiple myeloma and practiced alongside up-to-date applications like CD138 sorting.
Zebrafish models
In order to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying rare congenital diseases, evaluate the genotype-phenotype relation and determine possible therapeutic objectives, we plan to launch preclinical studies on the zebrafish model soon.
Today, Turkey is a leader country in medical tourism for international patients who seek oncological treatment. Oncology and nuclear medicine treatment in Turkey is definitely the main focus of medical tourism also. Due to modern technologies, it possible to conduct painless and safe surgical interventions to eliminate tumors of various sizes and classes and to carry out effective treatment of cancer. All treatment methods are carried out in accordance with inter-national standards (NCCN – in the USA, ESMO – in Europe).
Common Oncological Treatments in Turkey
The most important thing about cancer treatment the correct diagnostics. Knowing that almost %30 of patients with cancer come to Turkey with an inaccurate diagnosis, which is mistakenly made by a doctor in their home countries. This is why the diagnostic process is extremely important. In Turkey it’s conducted on the most modern equipment in the world. Hospitals are equipped with everything necessary to deter-mine areas of cancer cells. After examination is made, professors of various profiles, leading by chemotherapists, radiologists and surgeons, make common decision on treatment methods. Every case differs as well as therapy and medications.
In this type of cancer treatment, chemotherapy is used to destroy cancer cells. Treatment with chemical drugs is used both as a single method of treatment and in combination with other medicines or methods of oncological treatment such as surgery or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is used for treatment purposes, the use of drugs before and after surgery. As a control over the disease in order to stop the growth and spread of the tumor and prolong life and as palliative care for patients with stage 4 oncological diseases.
Goals of chemotherapy treatment
Cure; if possible, chemo is used to cure cancer, meaning that the cancer is destroyed – it goes away and doesn’t come back. Most doctors don’t use the word “cure” except as a possibility or intention. So, when giving treatment that has a chance of curing a person’s cancer, the doctor may describe it as treatment with curative intent.
Control; if cure is not possible, the goal may be to control the disease. Chemo is used to shrink tumors and/or stop the cancer from growing and spreading. This can help the person with cancer feel better and live longer. In many cases, the cancer doesn’t completely go away, but is controlled and managed as a chronic disease, much like heart disease or diabetes. In other cases, the cancer may even seem to have gone away for a while, but it’s expected to come back. Then chemo can be given again.
Palliation; Chemo can also be used to ease symptoms caused by the cancer. This is called palliative chemotherapy or palliation. When the cancer is at an advanced stage, meaning it’s not under control and has spread from where it started to other parts of the body, the goal may be to improve the quality of life or help the person feel better. For instance, chemo may be used to help shrink a tumor that’s causing pain or pressure.
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions.
Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. 
These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radio-tracers.
Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, swallowed or inhaled as a gas and eventually accumulates in the or-gan or area of the body being examined. Radioactive emissions from the radiotracer are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and pro-vides molecular information.
In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce special views, a practice known as image fusion or co-registration. These views allow the information from two different exams to be correlated and interpreted on one image, leading to more precise information and accurate diagnoses. In addition, manufacturers are now making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) units that are able to perform both imaging exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI.
Nuclear medicine also offers therapeutic procedures, such as radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy that use small amounts of radioactive material to treat cancer and other medical conditions affecting the thyroid gland, as well as treatments for other cancers and medical conditions.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients who do not respond to chemotherapy may under-go radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a personalized cancer treatment that combines radiation therapy with the targeting ability of immunotherapy, a treatment that mimics cellular activity in the body’s immune system.
What are some common uses of the procedure?
Physicians use radionuclide imaging procedures to visualize the structure and function of an organ, tissue, bone or system within the body.
In adults, nuclear medicine is used to:
• visualize heart blood flow and function (such as a myocardial perfusion scan)
• detect coronary artery disease and the extent of coronary stenosis
• assess damage to the heart following a heart attack
• evaluate treatment options such as bypass heart surgery and angioplasty
• evaluate the results of revascularization procedures
• detect heart transplant rejection
• evaluate heart function before and after chemotherapy (MUGA)
• scan lungs for respiratory and blood flow problems
• assess differential lung function for lung reduction or transplant surgery
• detect lung transplant rejection
• evaluate bones for fractures, infection and arthritis
• evaluate for metastatic bone disease
• evaluate painful prosthetic joints
• evaluate bone tumors
• identify sites for biopsy
• investigate abnormalities in the brain in patients with certain symptoms or dis-orders, such as seizures, memory loss and suspected abnormalities in blood flow
• detect the early onset of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease
• assist in surgical planning and localize seizure foci
• evaluate for abnormalities in a chemical in the brain involved in controlling movement in patients with suspected Parkinson’s disease or related movement dis-orders
• evaluation for suspected brain tumor recurrence, surgical or radiation planning or localization for biopsy
Other Systems
• identify inflammation or abnormal function of the gallbladder
• identify bleeding into the bowel
• assess post-operative complications of gallbladder surgery
• evaluate lymphedema
• evaluate fever of unknown origin
• locate the presence of infection
• measure thyroid function to detect an overactive or underactive thyroid
• help diagnose hyperthyroidism and blood cell disorders
• evaluate for hyperparathyroidism
• evaluate stomach emptying
• evaluate spinal fluid flow and potential spinal fluid leaks
In adults and children, nuclear medicine is also used to:
• stage cancer by determining the presence or spread of cancer in various parts of the body
• localize sentinel lymph nodes before surgery in patients with breast cancer or skin and soft tissue tumors.
• plan treatment
• evaluate response to therapy
• detect the recurrence of cancer
• detect rare tumors of the pancreas and adrenal glands
• analyze native and transplant kidney blood flow and function
• detect urinary tract obstruction
• evaluate for hypertension related to the kidney arteries
• evaluate kidneys for infection versus scar
• detect and follow-up urinary reflux
In children, nuclear medicine is also used to:
• investigate abnormalities in the esophagus, such as esophageal reflux or motility disorders
• evaluate the openness of tear ducts
• evaluate the openness of ventricular shunts in the brain
• assess congenital heart disease for shunts and pulmonary blood flow
Nuclear medicine therapies include:
• Radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy used to treat some causes of hyperthyroid-ism (overactive thyroid gland, for example, Graves’ disease) and thyroid cancer
• Radioactive antibodies used to treat certain forms of lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system)
• Radioactive phosphorus (P-32) used to treat certain blood disorders
• Radioactive materials used to treat painful tumor metastases to the bones
• I-131 MIBG (radioactive iodine labeled with metaiodobenzylguanidine) used to treat adrenal gland tumors in adults and adrenal gland/nerve tissue tumors in children
Nuclear Medicine Examinations:
Tc-99m thyroid scintigraphy
I131 thyroid scintigraphy
DPTA scintigraphy
DMSA scintigraphy
TI201 scintigraphy
Mag3 scintigraphy
Sr89 scintigraphy
In111 scintigraphy
RBC scintigraphy
For more detailed examination list and Oncology Check UP please contact MTS.
Gamma Knife Radiotherapy
The Gamma Knife is an advanced radiation treatment for adults and children with small to medium brain tumors, abnormal blood vessel formations called arteriovenous malformations, epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, a nerve condition that causes chronic pain, and other neurological conditions.
Gamma Knife is not a knife, but rather a sophisticated system that can be used to replace brain surgery or whole brain radiation in some situations. It uses a single, high dose of gamma radiation delivered via up to 201 individual beams which inter-sect at a single spot with the accuracy of less than one-tenth of a millimeter (about the thickness of a sheet of paper).
Gamma Knife can be used to treat an array of neurological disorders including brain metastases, arteriovenous malformations, facial nerve pain (trigeminal neuralgia), meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, recurrent gliomas and post-surgical pituitary tumors and essential tremor refactory to medication.
Gamma Knife procedure can be used to treat targets even in the most critical, difficult-to-access areas of the brain without delivering significant radiation doses to healthy normal brain tissue. Referred to as “surgery without a scalpel,” the Gamma Knife procedure does not require the surgeon to open the skull.
Contact Medical Treatment Services medical adviser to find out if Gamma Knife radio surgery is the right choice for you.
TrueBeam STx
TrueBeam STx is an advanced linear accelerator and radio surgery treatment system that allows doctors to target hard-to-reach tumors. The machine uses cutting-edge imaging technology — called ExacTrac® — to capture images of your tumor, even when it moves during your natural breathing patterns.
TrueBeam STx can perform many radiation treatments.
Your doctor, with your input, will decide on a treatment plan.
Depending on your type and stage of cancer, he or she may suggest one of the following treatments on the TrueBeam STx:
Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT)
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)
RapidArc® and gated RapidArc radiotherapy
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), including:
Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy
Stereotactic body radiation therapy
Types of Cancer We Treat with TrueBeam STx
At UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, we use the TrueBeam STx machine to treat the following cancers and other benign tumors:
Brain cancer (benign and malignant)
Head and neck cancer
Liver Cancer
Lung Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Spinal cancer
Vascular malformations
Many recurrent and inoperable tumors
TrueBeamSTx can also treat cancer that has spread, but still remains confined to one organ (oligometastasis).
CAR T-cell therapy
CAR T-cell therapy is a type of immunotherapy. You might also hear it called a type of adoptive cell transfer. CAR T-cell therapy is a very complex and specialist treatment. With this treatment, a specialist collects and makes a small change to your T cells. These then target the cancer cells. 
It is available as a possible treatment for some children with leukaemia and some adults with lymphoma. People with other types of cancer might have it as part of a clinical trial. 
T cells
To understand CAR T-cell therapy more, it helps to understand what T cells do.
White blood cells called lymphocytes play an important part in fighting infection and diseases, including cancer. There are different types of lymphocytes. T cells are one type.
T cells move around the body to find and destroy defective cells. When you come in-to contact with a new infection or disease, the body makes T cells to fight that specific infection or disease. It then keeps some in reserve so that if you come across the infection again your body can recognise it and attack it immediately. 
What happens?
With this treatment, you have a sample of T cells taken from your blood. Your medical team do this through a process called apheresis.
First you have a tube put into a vein in each arm. One tube removes the blood and passes it into an apheresis machine. The machine separates the different parts of the blood. For CAR T-cell therapy, the machine takes out your T cells. The rest of your blood cells and normal blood fluid go back into your body through the tube in your other arm. In the lab, they change the T cells. You might hear this called genetically engineering the T cell. 
The T cell is now a CAR T-cell. CAR stands for chimeric antigen receptor. These CAR T-cells are designed to recognize and target a specific protein on the cancer cells. Those changed T cells grow and multiply in the lab. Once there are enough cells you have a drip containing these cells back into your bloodstream. 
The aim is for the CAR T-cells to then recognize and attack the cancer cells. The changes they make in the lab mean that they can stay in your body for long periods of time, recognizing and attacking the specific cancer cells. Researchers are still looking into how long they might stay in the body.
There are different types of CAR T-cell therapy made by different companies. 
Examples include:
• tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) 
• axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta)
Which cancer types?
CAR T-cell therapy is available for some children with leukemia and some adults with lymphoma.
Children and young people:
CAR T-cell is recommended for those up to the age of 25 who have a type of leukemia called B cell ALL. It will be used in one of the following situations:
• newly diagnosed children or young people whose leukemia hasn’t gone away with 2 cycles of treatment
• their disease has come back (relapsed) following a stem cell or bone marrow transplant
• their disease has relapsed twice or more
• children and young people whose leukemia had gone away with treatment, but it’s come back, and chemotherapy isn’t working now
• their disease has come back once but they can’t have a stem cell transplant because either they aren’t well enough, or they don’t have a donor
For adults, it will also be available for some people with one of the following types of lymphoma:
• diffuse large B cell lymphoma
• primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma
It is for those adults whose lymphoma has continued to grow or relapsed following at least 2 treatments.
So this treatment is only suitable for a small number of children and young people, and around 200 adults each year. It is not used as a treatment outside of clinical trials for other types of cancer in children or adults.
Genetic Approach to Cancer Treatment
Cancer is a disease that begins with gnomic mutations. Classical cancer treatment, which is carried out only by establishing the stage and type of cancer is outdated. The protocols that are used depending on the site of the cancer are blinded treatments that are verified by routine MRI screenings.
Today we live in a world where, after the completion of the human genome project, we manage to obtain a profile of genetic mutations for which we clearly understand which treatment will best suit the patient.We work with a council of experienced oncologists who evaluate the results of the genetic studies performed. We have all the possibilities to apply the latest technologies in radiotherapy and proton therapy when needed. IMRT, ARC, Radiosurgery is successfully applied to patients. In addition to these types of treatment, hyperthermia is used, which improves the effect of radiotherapy, immunotherapy and other types of oncology treatment. At the same time, doctors strengthen the patient’s body with a high dose of vitamin C and improve treatment tolerance.
Not only the method of treatment, doubts, type of diet, habits, the patient’s spiritual state are important, all together, a comprehensive method of treatment with a suitable diet, psychological support, physiotherapy and by support of team of oncologist team make success in patient’s health.Doctors do not treat the cause of the disease, they treat the component that was disturbed in the body and led to cell mutation as only a small percentage of cancers are hereditary.
Oncologists, after carrying out complex treatment, to minimize recurrence, draw up a new map of life with the improvement of those mistakes that were made before. This program is compiled individually for each patient. Genetic approaches to individualized treatment are not standard treatments for cancer. Together with a genetic test, this is the selection of the correct lifestyle and diet. We provide personalized treatment based on the latest technology, modern drugs and an individualized course of treatment with supportive therapy.
If surgery is necessary, our team of oncologists includes leading specialists. Each patient undergo treatment based on evaluation of their medical examination and test results.
Urology is a discipline dealing with the urinary system of females, and both the urinary and genital system of males.
The urinary system:
Contains kidneys, urinary tract, bladder
The genital system, on the other hand:
Contains ovum, prostate, and sexual organs.
The whole kidney, bladder, and urinary tract operations and medical treatments of male, female, and children have been done in our urology service.
Urology department serves with the expert staff and advanced technology in our hospitals.
ESWL Electroshock Wave Lithotripsy Unit
URODYNAMIA Urinary incontinence and tests of urinary problems
UROFLOW The evaluation of urinary flow velocity
GREENLIGHT The laser treatment of prostate diseases